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The tunnels and windows of the Castle of Uchisar (Üçhisar) were carved from a natural pinnacle of volcanic tuff (hardened ash layers) in the 15th and 16th centuries by the Byzantine army, when the region was on the frontline in wars against the Islamic Caliphate. This hill, the highest point in Cappadocia, is located between the cities of Nevsehir, Urgup and Avanos (Nev?ehir, Ürgüp in Turkish) in Nevsehir Province in the Republic of Turkey. Published in Sierra Magazine, Sierra Club Outings January/February 2001.